Five Common Conditions that Impacts the Cornea

Five Common Conditions that Impacts the Cornea

Cornea is an integral part of the eye.

Cornea is a transparent sheet which is located in the front part of the eye. It is also a protective sheet for the eye. It helps in the right amount of refraction of light with minimum scatter in the right direction on the retina for clear view. Cornea needs to be healthy for proper and clear vision. If due to any reason the cornea gets damaged or loses its transparency, you must see the eye doctor immediately. Netralaya super speciality eye hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat is the best eye hospital for corneal treatment.

Below we have mentioned five common conditions that impact the cornea for your better understanding.

Structure of the cornea – It has five layers.

Corneal Epithelium:

This is the cornea’s outermost layer that makes up approximately 10 percent of the tissue’s thickness which is about 50μ. It is a smooth regular surface and is kept moist with tears.

Bowman’s Layer:

This is a acellular layer that is tough and sturdy and is 12μ in thickness. It is made up of collagen protein fibers that are tightly organized and is beneath the membrane of the epithelium. When this layer is injured and damaged, it may result in a scar as it does not regenerate.

Corneal Stroma:

This is a thick transparent layer that comprises upto 90 percent of the cornea’s tissue. This layer does not have blood vessels which is the reason of it’s transparency.

Descemet’s Membrane:

This is a thin acellular layer made up of collagen fibers. The main function of Descemet’s membrane is to protect against injuries and infection.

Corneal Endothelium:

This is an extremely thin layer of 5μ in thickness. This is the innermost layer of the cornea. These cells are needed to keep the cornea transparent.

If there is any damage to the deeper layer of cornea, the healing process may take longer.

Corneal damage/injury can show below symptoms:

  • Blurred vision.
  • Redness.
  • Pain. 
  • Sensitivity to light.
  • Tearing.
  • Impaired vision.
  • Sometimes it also causes headache and fatigue.

Five cornea conditions, their symptoms and how to treat them.

1. Allergies:

All people have allergies of some kind at some point in their lives. Mostly, eye allergies are triggered by below reasons:

  • Dust, mold and animal’s hair/fur – indoor allergens.
  • Pollens – Outdoor allergens.
  • Smoke, perfume, etc.

Symptoms of allergies: Itching in the eye, redness, burning eye, watery discharge, increased sensitivity to light, puffiness in the eye, blurred vision, etc.

Treatment: The above allergy symptoms are mostly temporary but if not treated well and on time can cause discomfort and also sometimes damage the eye. People should avoid the allergens to stop these symptoms. Sometimes, eye drops may help and also applying a cool compress to the eye will give relief from itching and swelling. You should visit the eye doctor if it’s serious.

Prevention: Avoiding the allergen if known.

2. Dry Eye/ Ocular Surface Disease:

In this digital era of high screen usage, dry eye has become the most common eye condition that people experience. This condition is very painful for some.

Tears are very important for good eye health. All the dirt and irritants are washed away with the tears. Tears also help to keep the eye surface moist. This smooth eye surface prevents potential irritation and sometimes also prevents the damage and infections also.

Everyday activities may get difficult if the eyes do not produce good quality tears or enough tears.

Dry eye is caused mainly due to allergies, contact lens use, skin disease, exposure to chemicals and sometimes some medications. Age can also be a factor for many people to have dry eyes.

Symptoms of dry eye: Red eyes, redness of the eyelids, foreign body sensation, itching, eye discomfort, hazy vision, and burning or stinging in the eye.


  • The treatments may include warm compresses, prescribed eye drops, oral medications, punctual plugs, sometimes eyelid surgery.
  • Intense pulsed light therapy (IPL). It decreases inflammation and increases the health of the tear layer.
  • Environmental modifications.

Prevention: Protect your by wearing protective eyewears that wrap around the sides of the eyes, use an air filter indoors, etc.

3. Infections:

Eye infections can happen in both the eyes or even in one eye or in any part of the eye. Cornea is a transparent layer due to the absence of blood vessels which make it vulnerable in fighting various eye infections. Very common eye infections are conjunctivitis (pink eye) and corneal ulcers. Viral infections of the cornea can severely affect the cornea leading to vision loss and can cause huge discomfort.

Symptoms: Redness and itching in the eye, swelling, discharge, pain, or distorted/ impaired vision.

Treatment: Depending on the type of infection, treatment differs. Mainly it includes eye drops, creams or antibiotics. For severe infections, visit the eye specialists urgently without any delay to prevent significant damage to the eye and vision loss.

Prevention: Always wash your hands before touching your eyes and practice good hygiene.

4. Herpes Zoster (Shingles):

This is an infection caused by the common chickenpox virus or the varicella-zoster virus. First, this virus remains inactive in the central nervous system if contracted by someone.  If reactivated, it produces physical pain along with blisters (rashes) called shingles. People get contracted by this virus due to an advanced age and due to weakened immune system.

Note here is that corneal damage can appear once the shingles have disappeared. It is very important to schedule an appointment with an eye doctor immediately if you’ve experienced shingles to avoid any long-term damaging effects.

Symptoms: High body temperature, painful rash, redness in the eye, light sensitivity, blurry or foggy vision.

Treatment: Antiviral oral treatment might lessen the risk of the virus infecting cells.

Prevention: Good hygiene should always be practised. Washing hands regularly before touching the eyes, especially when wearing contact lenses.

5. Corneal Dystrophies:

These are the groups of rare genetic diseases that affect different parts of the cornea. There are more than 20 types. This causes the building up of the foreign material on different parts of the cornea. These dystrophies progress gradually.

Symptoms: There are various kinds of symptoms depending on the type of dystrophy. Some dystrophies can cause severe visual impairment. In some cases, there are little symptoms in the early stages.

Treatment: If the dystrophy is caught in the early stage, the doctor monitors the condition to make sure the disorder does not progress. But in case when there are symptoms, the doctor may prescribe eye ointments, eye drops or laser treatment.

Best Cornea treatment and transplant at Netralaya:

Netralaya is the best eye hospital for corneal treatment and cornea 3D transplant in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Netralaya eye hospital is well equipped with the most advanced technology for the treatment of corneal diseases/disorders. We follow the latest and safest technological procedures that are very low in risk. We have the best and highly experienced eye surgeons to make sure that you get the best eye treatment.Visit us at