Diabetic retinopathy : Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Diabetic retinopathy : Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

What is Diabetic retinopathy?

Diabetic retinopathy is a very common form of eye disease. It is a complication developed in the eyes due to diabetic condition of the patient for a significant number of years. In other words, it’s a blood vessel damage in the retina due to diabetes.

Due to high blood sugar levels in the blood, the sugar damages the walls of the tiny blood vessels that go into the retina leading to fluid leakage into the retina. Due to the fluid accumulation, swelling is caused in the retina that causes distorted vision. In many other cases, abnormal blood vessels grow on the retina which leads to vision loss.

It can develop in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The longer the person has diabetes with less controlled blood sugar, the more are the chances of the person to develop this eye complication.

Diabetic retinopathy symptoms:

This usually affects both the eyes. People can have symptoms in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. As this complication progress, the symptoms may include:

  • In early stages, vision can be normal.
  • Spots in your vision (floaters)
  • Foggy / blurred vision
  • Fluctuating vision
  • Impaired vision
  • Shadowy/dark or empty areas in your vision
  • Vision loss

Netrayala super speciality eye hospital has a team of specialist eye doctors who provide great treatment for Diabetic retinopathy using specialized equipment like total retina photo without using dilating eye drops, laser angiography and 3D eye surgery.

When to see your eye doctor?

If you are suffering from diabetes, then you should visit your eye doctor regularly even if your vision seems fine. Careful management of diabetes is a must. If you are pregnant, then you need to be more careful and visit your eye doctor regularly as diabetic retinopathy worsens during pregnancy. Schedule your appointment right away if your vision becomes blurry, hazy or distorted.

Diabetic retinopathy types: There are two types.

Early diabetic retinopathy:

Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).       In this condition, new blood vessels do not grow. This condition leads to the weakening of the walls of the blood vessels in the retina. Due to this complication, the small and tiny bulges/swelling occurs on the walls of the smaller blood vessels leading to fluid and blood leakage into the retina. The big retinal vessels can then begin to dilate and it’s shapes get distorted. NPDR can worsen with time as more and more blood vessels get damaged.

Advanced diabetic retinopathy:

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Diabetic retinopathy can worsen and progress to this more severe type. In this condition, damaged blood vessels close off leading to the growth of abnormal new blood vessels in the retina that can leak into the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center of your eye (vitreous). These new blood vessels can interfere with the normal flow of fluid out of the eye leading to the increased pressure on the eyeball. This condition can damage the nerve that carries images from your eye to your brain (optic nerve), resulting in glaucoma.

Risk factors:

Risk of developing diabetic retinopathy can increase due to the following conditions.

  • Long duration of diabetes.
  • Poorly controlled blood sugar level.
  • High cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Use of tobacco, etc.


  • Vitreous hemorrhage. 
  • Retinal detachment.
  • Glaucoma.
  • Blindness.


  • Manage your diabetes.
  • Monitor your blood sugar level.
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin test on the advice of your eye doctor.
    Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Pay close attention to vision changes.
  • Regular eye tests under the guidance of your doctor.

Take an active role in diabetes management and you can prevent Diabetic retinopathy.

Netralaya super speciality eye hospital is one of the best eye hospitals for diabetic retinopathy treatment. Netralaya super speciality eye hospital with its highly experienced professionals and ultra-modern technologies has been providing all patients a better vision, a better life.