Corneal Diseases – Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Corneal Diseases - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

What is the cornea?

The cornea is a transparent layer at the front of the eye. This  transparent sheet helps the light to pass into the eye, through the pupil, lens and onto the retina at the back of the eye. Cornea curvature is very important in focusing the light or the reaction of the light. Cornea also protects our eyes from infection and foreign material.

Corneal diseases / types of dystrophies:

Corneal dystrophies are grouped by the layers of the cornea they affect. There are three major categories.

1. Anterior or superficial corneal dystrophies

In these dystrophies, the cornea’s other two layers are affected. These are the epithelium and the Bowman’s membrane. They include:

  • – Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy
  • – Lisch corneal dystrophy
  • – Meesmann corneal dystrophy
  • – Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy
  • – Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy

Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy is the most common type. It is also known as map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy. This is because when the doctor examines, he can see dots, fingerprint shapes, or grey shade areas which is similar to a map on your cornea.

2. Stromal Corneal Dystrophies

In these dystrophies, the central layer of the cornea is affected and can pass to other layers also. They include:

  • – Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy
  • – Granular corneal dystrophy
  • – Lattice corneal dystrophy
  • – Macular corneal dystrophy
  • – Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy

Lattice dystrophies is the most common of these. It is named so because of the lattice pattern formation when abnormal deposits of protein grow over the stroma.

3. Posterior Corneal Dystrophies

Two innermost layers of the cornea get affected in this dystrophy. These are Descemet membrane and the endothelium. They include:

  • – Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy
  • – Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy
  • – Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy

Fuchs’ corneal dystrophy is the most common. In this dystrophy, corneas get clouded as the cells that pump excess moisture out of your cornea to keep it clear start to die.

Symptoms of corneal diseases:

  • – Watery eyes.
  • – Dry eyes.
  • – Sensitivity towards light.
  • – Pain in the eye.
  • – The feel of something in your eye.
  • – Corneal erosion.


  • – Bacterial/viral or fungal infections.
  • – Keratoconus.
  • – Ageing.
  • – Cataract surgery.
  • – Contact lenses.
  • – Heredity.
  • – Eye trauma.
  • – Eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa, retinopathy etc.


Magnifying instruments can be used by your eye doctor to check for corneal disease. A slit lamp and advanced diagnostic technology such as corneal topography, the doctor can detect corneal diseases and other conditions related to the front structures of the eye.


Corneal disease should be treated immediately without any delay. In most of the cases, corneal transplant is needed to restore vision when the cornea becomes clouded, there are other measures that can be taken by the doctor to save vision in the starting stages of this condition.At Netralaya super speciality eye hospital, we make sure to review the person’s medical history and perform a careful and detailed examination of the eyes and eyelids. If you are looking for the consultation from the best doctors at the best cornea hospital or best cornea Transplant clinic, then you are at the right place. Netralaya is one of the leading eye hospitals in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Our expert team of super specialists eye surgeons and optometrists have many years of experience in eye care and we make sure to provide the best cornea treatment. We are one of the few certified centers for eye transplants in Gujarat and we are India’s only 3d Eye transplant Center.